24 juillet 2014

In Utero Exposure to Toxic Air Pollutants and Risk of Childhood Autism

Traduction partielle: G.M.

 2014 Jul 22. 

Exposition in utero à des polluants toxiques dans l'air et risques d'autisme infantile

  • 1From the aDepartment of Community Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; bDepartment of Biostatistics, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; cDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; and dDepartment of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.


Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism, but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Here, we examine risks for autism in children related to in utero exposure to monitored ambient air toxics from urban emissions.
Les facteurs génétiques et environnementaux sont connus pour contribuer au développement de l'autisme, mais relativement peu d'études ont examiné les risques environnementaux potentiels. Ici, nous examinons les risques d'autisme chez les enfants liés à l'exposition in utero à des substances toxiques dans l'air ambiant surveillés par les émissions urbaines.


Among the cohort of children born in Los Angeles County, California, 1995-2006, those whose mothers resided during pregnancy in a 5-km buffer around air toxics monitoring stations were included (n = 148,722). To identify autism cases in this cohort, birth records were linked to records of children diagnosed with primary autistic disorder at the California Department of Developmental Services between 1998 and 2009 (n = 768). We calculated monthly average exposures during pregnancy for 24 air toxics selected based on suspected or known neurotoxicity or neurodevelopmental toxicity. Factor analysis helped us identify the correlational structure among air toxics, and we estimated odds ratios (ORs) forautism from logistic regression analyses.


Autism risks were increased per interquartile range increase in average concentrations during pregnancy of several correlated toxics mostly loading on 1 factor, including 1,3-butadiene (OR = 1.59 [95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.15]), meta/para-xylene (1.51 [1.26-1.82]), other aromatic solvents, lead (1.49 [1.23-1.81]), perchloroethylene (1.40 [1.09-1.80]), and formaldehyde (1.34 [1.17-1.52]), adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, insurance type, parity, child sex, and birth year.


Risks for autism in children may increase following in utero exposure to ambient air toxics from urban traffic and industry emissions, as measured by community-based air-monitoring stations.
Les risques pour l'autisme chez les enfants peuvent augmenter suite à l'exposition in utero à des substances toxiques de l'air ambiant par les émissions de la circulation et de l'industrie urbaine, telle que mesurée par les stations de surveillance de l'air communautaires. 


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